Hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery is part of the master techniques in surgery series which presents common and advanced procedures in the major subspecialties of general surgery the series is overseen by josef e fischer md editor of the classic two volume reference mastery of surgery hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery depicts surgery of the liver hepatobiliary tree and pancreas . Many techniques have evolved over the years to make liver surgery more effective simpler and safer it is now possible to perform complicated major and more involved liver surgical procedures within a few hours and without the requirement of blood transfusions the most common type of liver surgery is liver resection which involves the complete or partial removal of the liver it is mostly . Blood loss reduction during surgery techniques used to reduce blood loss during liver resection include careful identification and control of all small blood vessels low central venous pressure is maintained with elevation of the liver to prevent venous bleeding portal inflow occlusion is also used to reduce bleeding although the current trend is decidedly away from warm ischemia during . Techniques and innovations in liver surgery since the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1987 the laparoscopic approach extended to several abdominal procedures however liver laparoscopic approach remains during a long time limited contrarily to abdominal surgery it is mainly due to the technical complexity of interventions the lack of appropriate instrumentation the risk of
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